Demand for Safe Spaces Avoiding Harassment and Stigma

Produced by: 
The World Bank
Available from: 
June 2020
Paper author(s): 
Florence Kondylis
Arianna Legovini
Kate Vyborny
Astrid Zwager
Luiza Andrade
Gender Economics

What are the costs to women of harassment on public transit? This study randomizes the price of a women-reserved “safe space” in Rio de Janeiro and crowdsource information on 22,000 rides. Women in the public space experience harassment once a week. A fifth of riders are willing to forgo 20 percent of the fare to ride in the “safe space”. Randomly assigning riders to the “safe space” reduces physical harassment by 50 percent, implying a cost of $1.45 per incident. Implicit Association Tests show that women face a stigma for riding in the public space that may outweigh the benefits of the safe space.


Research section: 
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