Tolerance, Agglomeration and Enterprise Innovation Performance: A Multi-Level Analysis of Latin American Regions

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November 2015
Paper author(s): 
Edward Lorenz (Université Nice Sophia Antipolis, France)
Jana Schmutzler (Universidad de Norte, Colombia)
Globalization - Trade
Infraestructure - Transport - Water

The research on innovations systems at the national and regional levels has contributed to an understanding of the innovation process that stresses its interactive nature and thus emphasizes its social embeddedness. At the same time, Richard Florida's (2002) theory of the creative class has drawn the attention to the influence tolerance, openness and cultural or social diversity play not only for the economic development of cities (Boschma & Fritsch, 2009; Florida, Mellander, & Stolarick, 2008; Kemeny, 2014), but more specifically for entrepreneurship (Audretsch, Dohse, & Niebuhr, 2010; Cheng & Li, 2012; Smallbone, Kitching, & Athayde, 2010) and innovation (Niebuhr, 2010; Qian, 2013; Qinglan & Yingbiao, 2011).


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