Mapping stratification: The industry-occupation space reveals the network structure of inequality

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Available from: 
June 2019
Paper author(s): 
Dominik Hartmann
Cristian Jara-Figueroa
Mary Kaltenberg
Paulo Gala
Topic: 
Poverty - Inequality - Aid Effectiveness
Year: 
2019

Social stratification is determined not only by income, education, race, and gender, but also by an individual’s job characteristics and their position in the industrial structure. Utilizing a dataset of 76.6 million Brazilian workers and methods from network science, we map the Brazilian IndustryOccupation Space (BIOS). The BIOS measures the extent to which 600 occupations co-appear in 585 industries, resulting in a complex network that shows how industrial-occupational communities provide important information on the network segmentation of society. Gender, race, education, and income are concentrated unevenly across the core-periphery structure of the BIOS. Moreover, we identify 28 industrial occupational communities from the BIOS network structure and report their contribution to total income inequality in Brazil. Finally, we quantify the relative poverty within these communities. In sum, the BIOS reveals how the coupling of industries and occupations contributes to mapping social stratification.

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