The Boltzmann fair division for distributive justice

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December 2022
Paper author(s): 
Ji‑Won Park
Jaeup U. Kim
Cheol‑Min Ghim
Demographic Economics - Migration

Fair division is a significant, long‑standing problem and is closely related to social and economic justice. The conventional division methods such as cut‑and‑choose are hardly applicable to real‑world problems because of their complexity and unrealistic assumptions about human behaviors. Here we propose a fair division method from a completely different perspective, using the Boltzmann division. The mathematical model of the Boltzmann division was developed for both homogeneous and heterogeneous cake‑cutting problems, and the realistic human factors (contributions, needs, and preferences) of the multiple participating players could be successfully integrated. The Boltzmann division was then optimized by maximizing the players’ total utility. We show that the Boltzmann fair division is a division method favorable to the socially disadvantaged or underprivileged, and it is drastically simple yet highly versatile and can be easily fine‑tuned to directly apply to a variety of social, economic, and political division problems.


Research section: 
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