Wealth gradients in early childhood cognitive development in five Latin American countries

Produced by: 
Universidad de los Andes
Available from: 
February 2014
Paper author(s): 
Norbert Schady (Inter-American Development Bank)
Jere Behrman (University of Pennsylvania)
Maria Caridad Araujo (Inter-American Developmment Bank)
Rodrigo Azuero (University of Pennsylvania)
Raquel Bernal (Universidad de los Andes)
David Bravo (Universidad de Chile)
Florencia Lopez-Boo (Inter-American Development Bank)
Karen Macours (Paris School of Economics)
Daniela Marshall (University of Pennsylvania)
Christina Paxson (Brown University)
Renos Vakis (World Bank)
Education - Health

Research from the United States shows that gaps in early cognitive and non-cognitive ability appear early in the life cycle. Little is known about this important question for developing countries. This paper provides new evidence of sharp differences in cognitive development by socioeconomic status in early childhood for five Latin American countries. To help with comparability, we use the same measure of receptive language ability for all five countries. We find important differences in development in early childhood across countries, and steep socioeconomic gradients within every country. For the three countries where we can follow children over time, there are few substantive changes in scores once children enter school. Our results are robust to different ways of defining socioeconomic status, to different ways of standardizing outcomes, and to selective non-response on our measure of cognitive development.


Research section: 
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